William Blake and Childhood Poverty

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The poet and artist, William Blake, spent most of his life living in London, eaking out a living as an engraver. The London of Blake’s day was a dark, violent, and oppressive place where violence and exploitation of the poor and vulnerable, specifically child abuse, was rampant. In 1822, the British Parliament passed the Martin’s Act, which prohibited the cruel treatment of animals; legislation preventing cruelty towards children was not passed until much later. During Blake’s lifetime, you could buy three children from an orphanage or workhouse for the price of a horse (Mayall). Poor and unwanted children were subject to appalling living and working conditions and beatings from both their employers and parents. Corporal punishment was a fixture of the British school system and would remain so until the 1990s. Much of Blake’s work addressed the issues of his day rather directly or indirectly and was inspired by his strong but unconventional religious and spiritual beliefs. In discussing the themes of innocence and experience, Blake gives a voice to the abused underclasses (Martin 1)

William Blake believed that his poetry and engravings were divinely inspired. He was born into family of what was known as “dissenters,” those who did not follow the Church of England; they were possibly Baptists. Blake himself disapproved of the Church of England and did not follow any specific religious denomination, though he had a strong spiritual bent and belief in God (Campe 3). His unusual and controversial religious beliefs are expressed through his art which he felt a moral and sacred obligation to create.  Songs of Innocence and Experience shows Blake’s views on human nature. Blake describes innocence and experience as “two contrary states of the human soul” and the poems in this body of work show many of its subjects from two different perspectives: one childlike and idealistic, the other more mature and world-weary. When read together, the parallel  poems highlight contradictions in their intended subject. The England of Blake’s day may have a rich and prosperous place but only thrived due to an oppressed underclass. Children may be pure innocents but the world is filled with forces which can destroy them or turn them into ferocious and corrupt monsters (Campe 6).

The companion pieces Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience deal with man’s essential purity which is corrupted by the hardships and evils of the world. The themes of purity and corruption are expressed in the two corresponding Chimney Sweeper poems through the use of black and white. Little Tom Dacre, the sweep in the Innocence version, is presented as an angelic figure in a dark and dirty world; Tom’s curly blond hair is describe as being like the wool of a lamb, a conventional symbol for innocence and saintliness “You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair” (8) and the sooty chimneys he works in are compared to black coffins  “Were all of them lock’d up in coffins of black” (12). The coffin imagery is used to foreshadow Tom’s possible early death but the poem gives him the possibility of salvation, “And the Angel told Tom, if he’d be a good boy, He’d have God for this father & and never want joy… Tho’the morning was cold, Tom was happy & warm; So if all do their duty, they need not fear harm,” (19-24). His life is hard and will likely be short, but his innocence gives him the hope of heaven.

The chimney sweeper in the Experience version is presented as much more tragic and pathetic figure. In contrast to the white angelic Tom in his coffins of black, this sweeper is described as “A little black thing among the snow, crying’weep, ‘weep, in notes of woe!” (1-2), an ugly black blot on the superficial purity of the world. It is implied that this sweeper was carelessly abandoned by his parents, who hypocritically attend church to appear respectable while he suffers in the streets, “And because I am happy, & dance & sing, They think they have done me no injury, and are gone to praise God & his Priest & King, Who make up a heaven of our misery,” (9-12). God, the Priest, and King refer to religion and government, those who are supposed to look after the poor and needy but do not. The Experience chimney sweeper is a miserable and doomed character, “Because I was happy upon the heath, and smil’d among the winter’s snow; the clothed me in the clothes of death, and taught me to sing the notes of woe.” (5-8). Both poems refer to the likely fate of these poor and unwanted children: a life of exploitation and an early death.

The cry of the Chimney Sweepers, “ ‘weep,” gives the poems an even more pathetic tone. In the Innocence version, it is meant to show how young Little Tom Dacre is: he cannot even fully pronounce the word “sweep” (Martin 3). While the Experience version uses the cry of  “‘weep” in a more complex way; to mimic sobbing and emphasize the tragic existence of the chimney sweepers, who were often sold off at six years old or younger (Martin 3). Children in Blake’s work are often presented as paragons of innocence and purity who cannot comprehend the evil in world or why it happens and are vulnerable to exploitation because of their youth and innocence. The “God & his Priest & King” mentioned in the Experience version of “The Chimney Sweep” fail to protect them.

Holy Thursday, another pair of companion poems, refers to a religious procession during the Easter season where the poor children of London are brought to a church service at St. Paul’s Cathedral. It’s Innocence version, uses the term “innocent” frequently to describe these poor children, “‘Twas on a Holy Thursday, their innocent faces clean,” (1), “Thousands of little boys & girls raising their innocent hands,” (8). They are even compared to angels, “Then cherish pity, lest you drive an angel from your door” (12). Blake paints these impoverished orphans as a picture of helpless innocence to get us to sympathize with their plight.

The Experience version of Holy Thursday has a darker tone. Blake laments the fact that so many children in a prosperous country like England are living in poverty, “Is this a holy thing to see, in a rich and fruitful land, babes reduced to misery, fed with cold and usurous hand?” (1-4). His verses take a more melancholy tone,  “Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy?” (5-6). The world for the poor orphans described in the previous poem will be desolate and difficult, cold, bleak, and filled with hardships, “It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine, and their fields are bleak & bare, and their ways are fill’d with thorns; It is eternal winter there,” (8-12).  The innocence of these children is not enough to protect them from suffering. Blake addresses a bitter truth about his time period; that thousands of children in London were orphaned and living in poverty. Both of the Holy Thursday poems are meant to address the plight of needy children and elicit sympathy for it.

Blake presents childhood as a double edged sword. Children might be guileless and uninhibited but they are also dependent and vulnerable. The corresponding Innocence and Experience poems show these two sides of their subjects. They present innocent and needy children but also a society that exploits and abuses them. Innocence, experience, youth, maturity, good and evil are all faces of the same coin: youth and innocence are fragile and finite states and even the most virtuous person has the potential for evil.

William Blake’s religious beliefs and social conflicts influenced his work. His Songs of Innocence and Experience show his views on the dual nature of the human soul. “Innocence” epitomizes the the purity and optimism of childhood but also it’s helplessness and vulnerability. “Experience” represents maturity and corruption as well as knowledge and enlightenment.The Chimney Sweep of the two poems of the same name is portrayed as both an angelic figure and as a crack in society’s hypocritical facade. He is destined to live a short and miserable life but has the promise of heavenly salvation. The poor orphans who attend the Holy Thursday church service are innocents worthy of protection but also a reminder of how the Church and State have failed. Blake condemns a society that exploits helpless children when it is supposed to protect and provide for them and turns them into evil and destructive individuals.  Loss of innocence through experience is an inevitable and perhaps necessary part of a person’s development but should not lead to corruption and vice.Though the lives of these children are difficult and unhappy they are also a symbol of hope. There is a chance that they make overcome their hardships and maybe grow up to change the world for the better.

Fashions of Sidewalks of New York Part 12: Theater Rendezvous 

In chapter six of Sidewalks of New York, Melanie visits her cousin Abigail, Countess of St. Oswald on her way to the theater. In toe is Melanie’s maid/companion Marie. 

   
 
The outfits worn by Melanie and Marie to the theater are inspired by the the theater outfits from the Tom Tierney Gibson Girl paperdoll book. 
  
I added fur to Melanie’s theater cape. The fur would be something like this except black to match the black fur muff. 

   
 

Marie wears a dramatic turquoise cape like this one from Victorian trading company. 

  
And a little black velvet muff trimmed with brown fur. 

  

Lady St. Oswald wears a loose, comfortable “tea gown” which would be appropriate for informal at home entertaining. 

  
It is taken from this classical inspired design. 

  

Melanie meets her uncle Mr. Ackerman at the theater and it is revealed that they are having an incestous affair. 

  
Melanie’s undergarments are inspired by this photograph. 

  
And these pieces from the period. 

  
Her unusual looking camisole was inspired by this one dated from 1905. 

  
Melanie changes into a sexy fur trimmed robe to receive her lover Ackerman. 

  
It was taken from this one. 

  
Melanie wears a pair satin slippers like these. 

  
Other accessories include an Etruscan revival bracelet with a gold cigarette case charm. 

   
 
Ackerman gives her a silver and sapphire necklace with a matching pair of earrings. 

   
 
Melanie recalls her arrival in New York and how she set out to seduce her uncle and get him as her wealthy protector. The day she approached him in Central Park, she wore “a fetching cordory suit and a smart little hat.” 

  
The suit was taken from the Gibson Girl paperdoll book. 

  
Stay Tuned for More Designs. 

Fashions of Retribution Part 28: Agnès’s Wedding 

In chapter 23 of Retribution, Agnès elopes with her boyfriend Kit and they are married in chapter 24.  Charles goes the church in hopes of seeing his daughter Marianne, who is a bridesmaid. Before the ceremony, he talks with Catharine and Mimi.   

 
Catharine’s mother of the bride outfit was taken from this period fashionplate 

  

The combination of black and white with gold accents reminds me of  the Dulcissima Barbie doll from the Fashion Model Collection.  

  
I looked to Dulcissima’s sister doll Luciana for Mimi’s outfit. 

  

  

 

Her suit comes from this period fashionplate. 

  
I did not like the hat on the outfit on the outfit I chose for Mimi so I softened it’s somewhat mannish feel by swapping it for a lovely cloche hat worn by the equally lovely Madge Evans. 

  

Agnès comes down the aisle chatting with her bridesmaids about how she and her husband are going to spend their honeymoon in Egypt. 

  

Agnès’s wedding dress was taken from this period cover for The Delineator 

  

Her short wedding veil was inspired by the Principessa doll from the Barbie Fashion Model Collection. I imagine Agnès’s gown also having lovely silver embroidery and sequins like Principessa’s gown. 

  
   

Agnès wears a tiara of golden leaves which is a family heirloom that has been worn by every d’Aubrey bride for several generations. It would be something like this. 

  
Marianne is one of Agnès’s bridesmaids. 

  

The bridesmaid dresses were taken from this period inspired outfit. 

  
Her accessories are a nod to the Fiorella Barbie doll. In the description on Barbie Collector Website, it says that Fiorella is the heroine of a Felini esque movie who is lonely and lovelorn in the middle of a wedding (presumably Principessa’s) which perfectly describes Marianne in this scene. 

  

Marianne’s hairstyle come from this period photograph, I want to say it’s of Carole Lombard. 

  
On her way home, Marianne stops to visit her friend Manon who has gone into mourning for her brother. 

  

Manon’s mourning dress was taken from this dress from the period. 

  
Her long, dark hair is twisted into a French braid like this one. 

  
Her she wears a black lace mourning veil like this one. 

  

When she arrives home, Marianne is overcome with hopelessness and tries to commit suicide with blood staining her pajamas. 

  

Inspired by these sewing patterns from the 1930s. 

  

Lucille, the Prideau family maid, wakes up her master and mistress to tell them the news of Marianne accident. 

  

The uniform was taken from this 1930s photograph of a maid and and this uniform from the period. 

 
 Adéle is shocked by the news and waits up for her husband while he is at the hospital visiting his daughter. 

  
She wears pajamas inspired by this glamorous 1930s lounge ware outfit. 
 

  
And a headscarf inspired by Mia Farrow as Daisy Buchanan in The Great Gatsby. 

  

Stay Tuned For More. 

Fashions of Sidewalks of New York Part 11: Afternoon at the Museum. 

Chapter six of Sidewalks of New York finds Lucy and Natalie spending a rainy afternoon at the Metropolitian Museum of Art. Natalie sketches while Lucy flirts with the handsome Lord Allan. 

   
 
Natalie’s outfit was inspired  by this costume worn by Rachel Weiss as Evie Carnahan in The Mummy. 
  

Adapted for the 1890s using this period blouse and skirt. 

  
With it, she wears a boater hat like the one from this photograph. 

  
Natalie’s hairstyle comes from this painting 

  

She is described as having poor eyesight and having glasses which she hardly ever wears because she feels that they make her look ugly. I’ve found a photograph of a woman from the period wearing glasses and I don’t imagine that Natalie would look too bad. 

  
Lucy’s outfit was inspired by this costume worn by Jessica Brown Findlay as Beverly Penn in Winter’s Tale. 

  

And these period illustrations 

   
 

I love this style of shoe and I imagine Lucy and Natalie wearing shoes like these. 

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Natalie 

 

They are joined by Lord Allan’s sister Sybil and her companion Mrs. Ashmore.  

   
 
Sybil wears a lovely pink suit taken from this equally lovely painting. 

  
And a hat like this one 

  
Sybil’s hairstyle was inspired by this drawing by Charles Dana Gibson. 

  
Mrs. Ashmore wears something like this. 

  
And a beautiful black hat decorated with white roses. 

  
Stay Tuned for More Designs. 

Scandalous 1930s: Part 2 

   
 

New Roles For Women: The 1920s saw more women competing with men for jobs and the stock market crash of 1929 meant that even more women needed to take jobs in order to support themselves and their families. Most of them looked to Hollywood movies and the exciting lives lead by film stars to take their minds off of their hardy and dreary lives. 

Changes in Fashion: Economic depression meant that fashion was not always a priority. When you look past the slinky, glamourous fashions worn in the movies, the clothing worn by your average woman could look rather frumpy and even rather masculine. Not having much money and needing to work can make one chose their clothes based on practically rather than stylishness. Pants, which were previously an avant-garde fashion choice, now had a firm place in sports, leisure, and work ware. 

Art Imitates Life: Finding one’s self in reduced circumstances would be familiar to the readers of Gone with the Wind and Scarlet O’Hara viciously clawing her way back up the social ladder may have been wishfulment for many of them. One of Scarlet’s primary motives is a fear of poverty, something familiar to survivors of the Great Depression. 

Fashions of Retribution Part 26: New Years Eve 

In chapter twenty-three of Retribution, Catharine throws a New Year’s Eve masquerade party.  New Year’s falls during the twelve days of Christmas, so it is common in France to exchange Christmas presents on that day. Mimi gives Marianne a new evening dress to wear to the masquerade party. 

  
 
The evening dress is described as being made of silk and chiffon and being of the loveliest shade of blue imaginable. The design I made for it was based on the ball gown worn by Lily James as Ella in Cinderella. 

  

The shape of the dress comes from this 1930s evening dress. I think this photograph is of Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire 

  
The beautiful blue evening dress comes with a white masquerade mask. 

  
Catharine gave Marianne a pair of pearl earrings as Christmas present which Marianne wears with her evening dress. 

  
She also wears a pearl necklace which her grandmother gave her for her fifteenth birthday. 

   
 
Also, she wears an opal hair comb which had belonged to her mother. It is an egyptian inspired Art Deco piece like this. 

  
Marianne’s long hair would be twisted up into pin curls to mimic a fashionable bob. The hair comb would be worn as decoration in the back like this one worn by Laura Carmichael as Lady Edith Crawley in Downton Abbey. 

  

Marianne’s hairstyle was inspired by this photograph of Vivian Leigh. 

  
Every Cinderella needs a pair of glass slippers, or at least a pair of silver dancing shoes. 

  

Agnès and her boyfriend Kit plan to sneak away from the party, so she confines in Marianne as they are getting ready. 

  
Agnès wears a teddy inspired by this photograph of Joan Blondell 

  
The golden yellow color comes from this costume worn by Sophie McShera as Drizella Tremaine in Cinderella. 

  

Agnès’s hairstyle comes from this photograph of actress Raquel Tores 

  

This hairstyle is similar to the one in the earlier photograph of Vivian Leigh. Both of these hairstyles remind me of Snow White. 

  

Both Agnès and Marianne seek to keep the secret of Agnès’s elopement from her mean spirited sister Mathilde. 

  
Mathilde wears a style of bra from the era called a ferrero bra. 

 
And a pair of tap pants. 

  
The orangish pink color of her underwear comes from this costume worn by Holliday Granger as Anastasia Tremaine in Cinderella. 

  

Mathilde wears a pair stockings with black stripes like these. 

  
Her hair is worn in finger waves and pin curls like these. 

  

At the party, Mimi helps the maid Annette bring in hors-d’oevres. 

  
Mimi wears a white evening dress inspired by the costume worn by Helena Bonham Carter as The Fairy Godmother in Cinderella. 

  

Adapted for the 1930s using this Miss Depew Vintage design. 

  
A common hairstyle for long haired women was the chignon with finger waves. 

  

For accessories, Mimi wears a white lace mask and silver and diamond jewelry. 

      

Mathilde shows off by singing Christmas carols for her guests. 

  
She wears a shimmer black evening dress taken from this one from the period. 

  
And a beaded black headband like this one worn by Michelle Dockery as Lady Mary Crawley in Downton Abbey. 

  

Before singing, she would have to take off her plague doctor masquerade mask. 

  
Agnès accompanys her sister on the piano. 

  
She is dressed in a champagne colored evening dress copied from this one by Jean Patou. 

  
With this, she wears a matching champagne colored mask

   
Finishing up her evening look is a gold headband like this one worn by Lily James as Lady Rose MacClare in Downton Abbey. 

   

An argument starts when Mathilde’s friend Solange insults Marianne by repeating nasty gossip about her relation with Augustin. I like the way this outfit came out, Solange looks like a super hero (or a super villain) 

  
Solange’s evening dress was copied from this Lanvin original. 

  
Her hairstyle comes from this photograph of actress Bebe Daniels. 

  
She wears a silver headband like this one worn by Lady Rose. 

  
Her super hero look is finished up with a silver mask like this one 

  
The argument escalates into Mathilde back handing Marianne and her wedding ring cutting Marianne’s cheek. I imagine Mathilde’s ring being something like this one. 

  
Before she elopes with Kit, Agnès barrows her mother’s best sable fur coat which would be something like this. 

  

The lovers are able to sneak past her mother Catharine, who is busy scolding Mathilde and Solange. Catharine also looks like a super hero. 

  
Catharine’s evening dress was inspired by the ball gown worn by Cate Blanchett as Lady Tremaine in Cinderella. 

  

The shape of Catharine’s evening dress comes from this Butterick dress pattern which was taken from a gown designed by Orry Kelly that was worn by Kay Francis in The Key Hole. 

  

Like Lady Tremaine, Catharine wears gold gloves but in a more muted gold. Like these ones worn by Lady Edith. 

  
Her hairstyle is also the fingerwaved chignon

  
She wears a green mask like this one, except I made the feather gold. 

 
Her evening look  is finished up with gold and emerald jewelry. 

   
   

Solange’s mother Carole defends her but is put in her place Catharine. Like her daughter, Carole looks like a super villain. 

  
Carole’s evening dress was copied from an original designed by Travis Banton and worn by Anna May Wong. 

  
Her hairstyle was taken from this photograph of Marlene Dietriche 

  
She wears a black lace mask and black net gloves. 

  
Her look is finished off with gold and garnet jewelry 

   
 

Fashions of Sidewalks of New York Part 10: Trip to the Theater Part 10

In Chapter 10 of Sidewalks of New York, Laurie brings Ashlyn to Ada’s theater for a job interview with Ada’s costume designer, Cora. 

  
Cora’s dress was taken from this one from the period. It has a bohemian feel which I think would be appropriate for someone working in the theater world. This dress also reminds me of Frozen for some reason. 

  
Later in the afternoon, Laurie and Ashlyn watch to matinée of Ada’s show, where she appears as Little Bo Beep. 

  
Ada’s hat was inspired by these sketches of costumes from the Follies Bergère.  

   
 
The bodice of her costume was taken from this sketch of a Greek shepherdess costume for a production of Winter’s Tale. 

  

The revealing tulle skirt was taken from this painting. 

  
The pink ribbons on her bodice come from this painting. 

  
The showgirls are dressed as Little Bo Peep’s sheep. 

  
I imagine these showgirl sheep costumes being something like an 1890s version of this Halloween costume. 

  
The mini dress comes from this turn of the century inspired showgirl costume. 

  
Stay Tuned For More 

Scandalous 1920s: Part 2 

   

New Roles For Women: The 1920s saw many new opportunities for women. In 1920, American women were given the right to vote and saw many take jobs for the first time. The quintessential woman of the period is the flapper, a stylish young woman who liked to drink, smoke, dance to jazz, and flirt ( and sometimes more) with men. But many of these flapper gave up their jobs and wild partying when they married. 
Changes in Fashion: Dress shapes changed dramaticly in the period before, waistlines dropped, and hemlines went up. Flappers wore short hair, short skirts and even pants. Legs and arms were more on display than they’d ever had. 

Art Reflects Life: The two main female characters in The Great Gatsby, Daisy and Jordan, are pretty much what you think of when you think “flapper”.  But one of things Fitzgerald show is how little things have actually changed for women. Daisy and Jordan maybe beautiful and glamorous but they are hardly feminist role models; in fact, they are shown to be hardly more than just their wealth, looks, and stylish clothes. 

Daisy famously says that she hopes hopes her daughter will be a fool because “because that’s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool.” Despite all of the outward freedom a woman in the 1920s might have, such as being able to vote, work, and party, in the end she is still expected to do little more than look pretty, smile, and ignore all that is unpleasant. 

Historically Accurate Spring Awakening. 

Followers of my blog with know that  I’m a huge fan of the rock musical Spring Awakening. The musical which came out in 2006 was based on a play written in 1891 and first performed in 1906. 

The play is set in Germany at the turn of the century which is one of my favorite eras for fashion.  The score takes a leap of 100 years and is very 1990s/early 2000s indie rock. The costumes tend to look like things purchased from Urban Outfitters. 

I’ve found a photograph from the original 1906 production of a costume worn by an actress named Camilla Eibenshütz playing the heroine, Wendla Bergmann.  It’s a sort of sailor or “middie” outfit common in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Wendla is supposed to be fourteen and an outfit like this would be something appropriate for a girl in her early teens. 

  

Some other examples of these “middie” outfits. 

   
 
In the 2006 musical version, Wendla is first seen wearing a sort of teddy garment which is supposed to underwear. At first, I thought it was meant to be a chemise but then I noticed the shorts. 

  
I think this outfit is supposed to look like the “combinations” undergarment worn in this era. 

  
 

Wendla then puts on her “fairy queen” dress. It is short and childish and inappropriate for a blossoming young lady of fourteen. 

  
She then puts on a more appropriate blue dress. 

  
The other girls wear similar dresses 

   
In the original play, the opening scene takes place on Wendla’s fourteenth birthday. Her mother gives her a long dress because the clothes she has previously been wearing have become indecently short.  Knee length dresses like Wendla’s fairy queen dress would have been considered inappropriate after the age of four. 

  
Fourteen would be the age when girls would start wearing long dresses (a couple inches above the ankle) and their hair in half up-does. The girls in the back of this picture would be about that age. 

  

Wendla’s final outfit is a nightgown which looks pretty period accurate. 

   

 It kind of reminds me of this one
  
In the recent Deaf West production which will be coming to Broadway, Wendla, played by Sandra Mae Frank, wears an outfit with a distinctly 1930s feel, a floral print shirtwaist dress with a peterpan collar.   

 

Shirtwaist dresses were popular during the turn of the century

  
But also during the 1930s 

  
In the end,  Spring Awakening is a thoroughly enjoyable musical that doesn’t let stuffy nineteenth century values, or stuff nineteenth century fashion, get in its way.  

Fashions of Retribution Part 25: Christmas

In chapter twenty-two of Retribution, Catharine has her two daughters, Mathilde and Agnes for breakfast on Christmas Eve.

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The night dresses and peignoirs worn by Mathilde and Agnes were inspired by these costume worn by Holliday Granger and Sophie McShera as Anastasia and Drizella Tremaine in Cinderella. 

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As well as these costumes from a Paris Opera Ballet production of Prokofiev’s Cinderella 

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Mathilde’s  nightgown and peignoir were taken from these from the period.

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Agnes’s nightgown and peignoir were taken from these.

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Again I took to the Tremaine sisters for inspiration when it comes to Mathilde and Agnes’s next outfits.

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which were taken from these costumes worn by Holliday Granger and Sophie McShera.

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Mathilde’s dress was modeled after this one

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And Agnes’s dress was modeled after this one.

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I then looked to Lady Tremaine for an out for their mother, Catharine.

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I took Catharine’s sweater/skirt ensemble from Marianne from Fintage.net

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Catharine wears snowflake esque silver diamond jewelry

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Mimi visits them on Christmas Eve

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The color scheme of Mimi’s dress comes from this fashion plate from the 1920s, the dress on the right.

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The shape of the dress was taken from this one from the period.

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Mimi also wears snowflake inspired jewelry

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When Marianne arrives at her aunt’s house, she is greeted by Annette the maid.

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Annette’s uniform was taken from this drawing.

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That night, the family goes to midnight mass.

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Catharine and Mimi’s coats come from this fashion plate from the period.

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Catharine’s outer wear was also influenced by this coat and hat worn by Michelle Dockery as Lady Mary Crawley in Downton Abbey. 

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Mimi’s hat and collar were taken from this fashion plate.

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Agnes’s outer wear was taken from this photograph

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Agnes’s coat and hat comes from this period photograph, it’s the one on the right.

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Adele also attends midnight mass with her sister Charlotte and nieces Aimee and Desiree.

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Adele’s dress was taken from this one worn by Joanna David as Mrs. de Winter in Rebecca. 

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Charlotte’s was taken from this one from the period

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Charlotte’s whole outfit was taken from the Barbie Fashion Model Collection dolls Gay Parisienne and Parisienne Pretty 

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Their coats and hats also come from the same period photograph I got Mathilde’s from. Charlotte is in the center, Adele is on the left.

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Aimee and Desire wear matches dressed taken from this for the American Girl Ruthie doll and matching coats and hats taken from Ruthie’s friend kit.

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After mass, Charlotte and Adele put the two little girls to bed.

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The two little girls where matching pink pajamas, again borrowed from Ruthie.

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On Christmas Day, Marianne goes with Maude, Augustin’s aunt, to visit Augustin in prison.

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Maude’s dress and hat were taken from these reproductions

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Her coat was taken from this one worn by Sophie McShera as Daisy Mason in Downton Abbey. 

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That night, Marianne’s neighbor Louise hosts an open house.

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Louise’s dress was copied from this reproduction.

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Her hat was copied from this one.

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She wears her hair in a style like this.

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Charles’s friend Sarah drops by for cocktails the evening before New Year’s Eve.

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Sarah’s dress was copied from this one made for a Ruthie American Girl Doll.

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Her jacket and hat were taken from these worn by Laura Carmichael as Lady Edith Crawley on Downton Abbey 

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